Lung Cancer


Epidemiology

General Comments (American College of Chest Physicians Lung Cancer Guidelines; Chest, 2013) [MEDLINE]

Risk Factors for Lung Cancer (American College of Chest Physicians Lung Cancer Guidelines; Chest, 2013) [MEDLINE]

Tobacco Abuse (Current or Historical) (see Tobacco, [[Tobacco]])

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure

Advancing Age

Outdoor Air Pollution (see Air Pollution, [[Air Pollution]])

Indoor Air Pollution

β-Carotene Supplementation in Heavy Smokers (see β-Carotene, [[β-Carotene]]) (NEJM, 1994) [MEDLINE]

Chloromethyl Ethers

Family History of Lung Cancer

Infection

Radiation Exposure

Lung Disease

Toxin Exposure

Other Factors Not Associated with an Increased Risk of Lung Cancer

Protective Factors Against Lung Cancer


Physiology/Histology

General Comments

Incidence

Pathologic Features and Immunohistochemical Tumor Markers

Molecular Genetics

Adenocarcinoma

Tumor Doubling Time

Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma in Resection Specimens (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Guidelines, 2011) (J Thorac Oncol, 2011) [MEDLINE]

Preinvasive Lesions
Minimally Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma (≤3 cm Lepidic Predominant Tumor with ≤5 mm Invasion) (MIA)
Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma
Variants of Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Diagnosis
Histologic Features
– Keratinization
– Intercellular Bridges

Large Cell Carcinoma

Small Cell Lung Cancer

Epidemiology


Diagnosis and Staging Procedures

General Evaluation of Pulmonary Nodules

PROB MALIGNANCY

LUNG NODULE

Evaluation of Primary Parenchymal Lung Nodule/Mass

Chest X-Ray (CXR) (see Chest X-Ray, [[Chest X-Ray]])

Chest CT with Intravenous Contrast (see Chest Computed Tomography, [[Chest Computed Tomography]])

Dynamic CT (see Chest Computed Tomography, [[Chest Computed Tomography]])

Sputum Cytology

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan (see Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography, [[Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography]])

Conventional Bronchoscopy (see Bronchoscopy, [[Bronchoscopy]])

Electromagnetic Navigation (EMN) Bronchoscopy (see Bronchoscopy, [[Bronchoscopy]])

Bronchoscopy with Endobronchial Ultrasound-Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) (see Bronchoscopy, [[Bronchoscopy]])

Transthoracic Needle Aspiration (TTNA) (see Transthoracic Needle Aspiration, [[Transthoracic Needle Aspiration]])

Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) with Lung Biopsy (see Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery, [[Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery]])

Evaluation of the Mediastinum

General Comments

Chest CT with Intravenous Contrast (see Chest Computed Tomography, [[Chest Computed Tomography]])

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan (see Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography, [[Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography]])

Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (TBNA)

Bronchoscopy with Endobronchial Ultrasound-Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) (see Bronchoscopy, [[Bronchoscopy]])

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) (see Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, [[Esophagogastroduodenoscopy]])

Transthoracic Needle Aspiration (TTNA) (see Transthoracic Needle Aspiration, [[Transthoracic Needle Aspiration]])

Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) with Mediastinal Lymph Node Biopsy (see Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery, [[Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery]])

Mediastinoscopy (see Mediastinoscopy, [[Mediastinoscopy]])

Left Anterior Mediastinotomy (Chamberlain Procedure)

Video-Assisted Mediastinal Lymphadenectomy (VAMLA)

Transcervical Extended Mediastinal Lymphadenectomy (TEMLA)

Evaluation of Pleural Disease/Effusion

Chest CT with Intravenous Contrast (see Chest Computed Tomography, [[Chest Computed Tomography]])

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan (see Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography, [[Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography]])

Thoracentesis (see Thoracentesis, [[Thoracentesis]])

Pleural Biopsy

Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) with Pleural Biopsy (see Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery, [[Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery]])

Evaluation of Extrathoracic Sites for Potential Metastases

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan (see Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography, [[Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography]])

Bone Scan (see Bone Scan, [[Bone Scan]])

Brain MRI (see Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging, [[Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging]])

Head CT (see Head Computed Tomography, [[Head Computed Tomography]])

Recommendations (American College of Chest Physicians Lung Cancer Guidelines; Chest, 2013) [MEDLINE]

Tumor Testing for Targetable Oncogenic Driver Mutations

General Comments

Oncogenic Driver Mutations

Clinical Efficacy

Specific Staging of Small Cell Lung Cancer


Staging

International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Lymph Node Map

TNM Staging System for Non-Small Cell, Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Bronchial Carcinoid (American College of Chest Physicians Lung Cancer Guidelines, 2013) (Chest, 2013) [MEDLINE]

Primary Tumor

Special Situations

Regional Lymph Nodes

Distant Metastasis

Stage Groupings

LUNG CANCER STAGING

Veterans Administration Lung Study Group (VALSG) Staging System for Small Cell Lung Cancer

American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer Seventh Edition Staging System for Small Cell Lung Cancer (TNM)


Lung Cancer Screening

Lung Cancer Prediction Models

Clinical Efficacy

Low-Dose Computed Tomography (CT) Lung Cancer Screening Trials

National Lung Screening Research Trial Team-Screening of High-Risk Patients with the Low-Dose CT Reduces Lung Cancer Mortality (NEJM, 2011) [MEDLINE]

National Lung Screening Trial Research Team-Results of Initial Low-Dose CT Screening for Lung Cancer (NEJM, 2013) [MEDLINE]

Benefits of Lung Cancer Screening are Proportional to the Risk of Lung Cancer Death in the Patient

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Low-Dose Chest CT Lung Cancer Screening

Low-Dose Chest CT Screening Recommendations

Other Types of Lung Cancer Screening


Clinical Manifestations

Cardiovascular Manifestations

Chest Pain (see Chest Pain, [[Chest Pain]])

Pulmonary Manifestations

Alveolar Infiltrate (Mimicking Pneumonia)

Bronchorrhea (see Bronchorrhea, [[Bronchorrhea]])

Cough (see Cough, [[Cough]])

Dyspnea (see Dyspnea, [[Dyspnea]])

Endobronchial Lesion with Atelectasis (see Atelectasis, [[Atelectasis]])

Hemoptysis (see Hemoptysis, [[Hemoptysis]])

Hoarseness (see Hoarseness, [[Hoarseness]])

Lung Nodule (see Lung Nodule or Mass, [[Lung Nodule or Mass]])

Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy (see Mediastinal Mass, [[Mediastinal Mass]])

Pancoast Syndrome

Pleural Effusion (see Pleural Effusion-Exudate, [[Pleural Effusion-Exudate]])

Pleural Thickening

Vascular Manifestations

Superior Vena Cava (SVC) Syndrome (see Superior Vena Cava Syndrome, [[Superior Vena Cava Syndrome]])

Constitutional Manifestations

Metastases

General Comments

Adrenal Metastases

Bone Metastases

Brain Metastases

Hepatic Metastases

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

General Comments and Epidemiology

Clinical Paraneoplastic Syndromes


Chemoprevention


Treatment of Lung Cancer

Smoking Cessation (see Tobacco, [[Tobacco]])


Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

General Considerations

Patient Expectations Regarding Chemotherapy

LUNG CANCER RX

Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

Non-Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

Other Special Clinical Circumstances in Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Special Clinical Treatment Issues and Recommendations (American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines, 3rd Edition) (Chest, 2013) [MEDLINE]

Pancoast Tumor

Tumor Invading the Chest Wall

Central T4 N0-1 M0 Tumor

Second Primary Lung Cancer

Additional Tumor Nodules in the Same Lobe (T3Satell)

Ipsilateral Different Lobe Tumor Nodules (T4Ipsi Nod)

Contralateral Lobe Tumor Nodules (M1aContr Nod)

Multifocal Lung Cancer

Isolated Brain Metastasis

Isolated Adrenal Metastasis

Surgical Considerations

Management of Bronchorrhea in Bronchioloalveolar Cell Ca (see Bronchorrhea, [[Bronchorrhea]])


Treatment of Small Cell Lung Cancer

General Considerations

General Comments

Patient Expectations Regarding Chemotherapy

General Treatment Recommendations

Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer

T1/T2/Clinical Node (cN) Negative

Clinical T3/T4/N Positive

Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer

Recurrent Chemotherapy-Sensitive Small Cell Lung Cancer


Prognosis

Overall Survival Rates (American College of Chest Physicians Lung Cancer Guidelines; Chest, 2013) [MEDLINE]

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Prognostic Factors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Survival Rate in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Small Cell Lung Cancer

Prognostic Factors in Small Cell Lung Cancer

Survival Rate in Small Cell Lung Cancer


References

General

Lung Cancer Screening

Diagnosis

Staging

Chemoprevention

Treatment

General

Psychosocial

Smoking Cessation

Small Cell Lung Cancer