Clinical Manifestations

Pulmonary Manifestations

  • Occupational Asthma (see Asthma-Occupationa, [[Asthma-Occupational]])
    • Exposure
      • Chrome platers
      • Welders

Dermatologic Manifestations

  • Allergic Contact Dermatitis (see Contact Dermatitis, [[Contact Dermatitis]]): due to skin exposure to chromium
    • Exposure: chromium may be present in jewelry

Renal Manifestations

  • Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) (see Acute Kidney Injury, [[Acute Kidney Injury]])
    • Epidemiology: definite association
    • Exposure: chromium workers
    • Physiology: Chromate is selectively concentrated in the convoluted proximal tubule
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) (see Chronic Kidney Disease, [[Chronic Kidney Disease]])
    • Epidemiology: possible association
    • Exposure: chromium workers
    • Physiology
      • Low molecular weight proteinuria is observed in chromium workers
      • Excessive urinary beta 2-microglobulin (a specific proximal tubule brush border protein) and retinol-binding protein have been reported in chrome platers and welders


  • Environ Health Perspect. 1991 May;92:71-4 [MEDLINE]