Raynaud Phenomenon

Etiology

  • Vasospastic

    • Primary Raynaud’s phenomenon
    • Drug-induced Raynaud’s
      • Ergots
      • Methysergide
      • ß-blockers
    • Pheochromocytoma
    • Carcinoid syndrome
  • Structural

    • Large artery obstruction (usually unilateral)
    • Small-vessel disease
      • Vibrating tools
      • Arteriosclerosis
      • Thromboangiitis Obliterans
    • Frostbite
    • PVC disease
    • Chemo
    • Diffuse connective tissue diseases
      • Scleroderma
  • Hematologic

    • Cryoproteins
    • Hyperviscosity syndrome
    • Cold agglutinin disease
    • Polycythemia

References

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