Physiology of Serum Sodium

Composition of Serum

Etiology of Hypernatremia

Water Loss Alone

Renal Water Loss

Extra-Renal Water Loss

Water + Sodium Loss

Renal Water + Sodium Loss

Extra-Renal Water + Sodium Loss

Sodium Gain

Excessive Sodium Administration

Adrenal Hyperfunction

Diagnosis of Hypernatremia

Laboratory Serum Sodium Measurement Technology

Clinical Manifestations

Neurologic Manifestations

Other Manifestations


General Treatment Considerations

Treatment by Type