Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)/Oximetry

Serum Chemistry

Tuberculin Skin Testing (TST) (see Tuberculin Skin Testing)

Kveim Test

Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT’s) (see Pulmonary Function Tests)

Bronchoscopy (see Bronchoscopy)

General Comments

Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) (American Thoracic Society Guidelines for Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cellular Analysis in Interstitial Lung Disease, 2012) (Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2012) [MEDLINE]

Endobronchial Biopsy (EBB)

Transbronchial Biopsy (TBB)

Chest X-Ray (CXR)/Chest Computed Tomography (CT) Pattern (see Chest X-Ray and Chest Computed Tomography)

High-Resolution Chest Computed Tomography (HRCT) (see High-Resolution Chest Computed Tomography)

Bone Scan (ses Bone Scan)

Gallium Scan (see Gallium Scan)

Cardiac MRI (see Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

Brain MRI (see Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

Serology/Inflammatory Markers

Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Level (see Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme)


Clinical Manifestations

General Comments

Cardiovascular Manifestations

General Comments

Conduction Defects (see Heart Blocks)


Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

Pericardial Effusion/Tamponade (see Pericardial Effusion and Tamponade)

Constrictive Pericarditis (see Constrictive Pericarditis)

Pulmonary Hypertension with Cor Pulmonale (see Pulmonary Hypertension)

Superior Vena Cava (SVC) Syndrome (see Superior Vena Cava Syndrome)

Substernal Chest Pain (see Chest Pain)

Constitutional Manifestations

Dermatologic Manifestations

Endocrine Manifestations

Hypercalcemia (see Hypercalcemia)

Hypercalciuria (see Hypercalciuria)

Parotid Gland Enlargement


Gastrointestinal Manifestations

Hematologic Manifestations

Hepatic Manifestations

Neurologic Manifestations (Neurosarcoidosis)

General Comments

Cranial Nerve Palsies

Meningitis (see Meningitis)

Peripheral Neuropathy (see Peripheral Neuropathy)

Space-Occupying Brain Lesions

Spinal Cord Dysfunction


Ophthalmologic Manifestations

Otolaryngologic Manifestations

Nasal Polyps (see Nasal Polyps)

Laryngeal/Posterior Pharyngeal/Vocal Cord Granulomas

Pulmonary Manifestations

General Comments

Alveolar Sarcoidosis (see Pneumonia)

Bullous-Cystic Sarcoid (see Cystic-Cavitary Lung Lesions)

Hilar/Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy (see Mediastinal Mass)

Nodular/Necrotizing Sarcoidosis (see Lung Nodule or Mass and Cystic-Cavitary Lung Lesions)

Pleural Involvement

Pulmonary Hypertension (see Pulmonary Hypertension)

Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease (VOD) (see Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease)

Reticulonodular Interstitial Lung Disease (see Interstitial Lung Disease)

Rounded Atelectasis (see Rounded Atelectasis)

Tracheobronchial Airway Obstruction (see Obstructive Lung Disease)

Renal Manifestations

Rheumatologic Manifestations


Corticosteroids (see Corticosteroids)

Antimalarial Agents



Methotrexate (see Methotrexate)

Azathioprine (Imuran) (see Azathioprine)

Leflunomide (Arava) (see Leflunomide)

Anti-Tumor Necrosis-α (Anti-TNFα) Therapy (see Anti-Tumor Necrosis-α Therapy)

Specific Treatment of Sarcoidosis-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension (see Pulmonary Hypertension)

Endothelin Receptor Antagonists (see Endothelin Receptor Antagonists)

Sildenafil (Viagra, Revatio) (see Sildenafil)

Other Potential Treatments

Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) (see Cyclophosphamide)

Mycophenolate Mofetil (Cellcept) (see Mycophenolate Mofetil)

Pentoxifylline (Trental) (see Pentoxifylline)

Quinacrine (xxx) (see Quinacrine)

Agents Which are Generally Avoided (Due to Unclear or Lack of Efficacy)

Allopurinol (see Allopurinol)

Chlorambucil (see Chlorambucil)

Colchicine (see Colchicine)

Cyclosporine A (see Cyclosporine A)

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID’s) (see Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug)

Tetracyclines (see Tetracyclines)

Oxyphenbutazone (see Oxyphenbutazone)

Thalidomide (see Thalidomide)

Tranilest (see Tranilest)

Vitamin D Supplementation (see Vitamin D)

Radiation Therapy (see Radiation Therapy)


Lung Transplant (see Lung Transplant)

Heart Transplant (see Heart Transplant)

Liver Transplant (see Liver Transplant)

Monitors of Sarcoidosis Disease Activity



Pulmonary Hypertension




Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy (see Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy,)

Methotrexate (see Methotrexate)

Azathioprine (Imuran) (see Azathioprine

Calcium and Vitamin D

Lung Transplant (seeLung Transplant)