PFT-Restriction

Etiology -> P-A-I-N-T-O-C-P

Pleural Disease

Alveolar Filling Process

Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)

Neuromuscular Disease

  • Examples
  • PFT Features
    • Decreased TLC in pure inspiratory weakness, but not in pure expiratory muscle weakness (this is one of the cases where restriction can be diagnosed in setting of a normal TLC)
    • No change in FRC in cases with both inspiratory and expiratory muscle weakness

Thoracic Cage Abnormality

  • Examples
  • PFT Features
    • Decreased TLC
    • Decrease in VC
    • Small decrease in FRC (normal-slightly increased in Ankylosing Spondylitis cases with restricted thoracic cage expansion)

Obesity

  • PFT Features
    • xxxx

Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) (see Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension)

  • Restrictive PFT’S are seen in 20% of cases
  • PFT Features
    • Generally mild restriction

Poor Cooperation

  • PFT Features
    • xxxx