Obstructive Lung Disease

Upper Airway Obstruction

Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility (BVFI) (see Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility, [[Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility]])

Cricoarytenoid Arthritis (see Cricoarytenoid Arthritis, [[Cricoarytenoid Arthritis]])

  • Primary Rheumatologic Disease
  • Other
    • Cricoarytenoid Joint Ankylosis Due to Prior Streptococcal Infection (see Streptococcus, [[Streptococcus]])
    • Crohn’s Disease (see Crohn’s Disease, [[Crohns Disease]])
    • External Trauma to Cricoarytenoid Joint
    • Internal Trauma Due to Endotracheal Tube-Related Injury to Cricoarytenoid Joint: includes posterior or anterior arytenoid displacement, posterior dislocation resulting from extubation with a partially inflated endotracheal tube cuff, arytenoid chondritis secondary to prolonged endotracheal intubation
    • Mumps-Associated Laryngeal Arthritis (see Mumps Virus, [[Mumps Virus]])
    • Radiation Therapy Injury to Cricoarytenoid Joint (see Radiation Therapy, [[Radiation Therapy]])
    • Tietze’s Syndrome

Laryngeal Inflammation

Laryngospasm (see Laryngospasm, [[Laryngospasm]])

  • Aspiration Event (see Aspiration Pneumonia, [[Aspiration Pneumonia]])
    • Epidemiology
      • Associated with Intubation for Mechanical Ventilation (see Mechanical Ventilation-General, [[Mechanical Ventilation-General]])
      • Associated with Procedural Sedation (see Sedation, [[Sedation]])
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) (see Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, [[Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease]])
  • Chlorine Gas/Aerosol Inhalation (see Chlorine, [[Chlorine]])
  • General Anesthesia (see General Anesthesia, [[General Anesthesia]])
    • Epidemiology
      • Laryngospasm Typically Occurs on Emergence from General Anesthesia
  • Hypocalcemia (see Hypocalcemia, [[Hypocalcemia]])
  • Post-Extubation
  • Organophosphate Intoxication (see Organophosphates-Carbamates, [[Organophosphates-Carbamates]])
    • Physiology: nicotinic effects cause laryngospasm

Neurologic Disease/Dysfunction Involving the Vocal Folds

  • Alport Syndrome (see Alport Syndrome, [[Alport Syndrome]]): case report invoved a patient with chronic kidney disease, post-op from surgery with high amount of blood loss and possible impaired perfusion to recurrent laryngeal nerves (with ischemic injury) during the case
  • Altered Mental Status with Inability to Protect Upper Airway: typically acute
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) (see Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, [[Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis]])
  • Arnold-Chiari Malformation
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) (see Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, [[Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease]])
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM) (see Diabetes Mellitus, [[Diabetes Mellitus]])
    • Physiology: neuropathy involving the laryngeal nerves
  • Dystonic Reaction of Pharyngeal+Laryngeal Muscles (see Dystonic Reaction of Pharyngeal+Laryngeal Muscles, [[Dystonic Reaction of Pharyngeal+Laryngeal Muscles]]): typically acute
  • Essential Tremor (see Essential Tremor, [[Essential Tremor]]): typically mild upper airway obstruction
  • Hydrocephalus (see Hydrocephalus, [[Hydrocephalus]])
  • Hypocalcemia (see Hypocalcemia, [[Hypocalcemia]])
  • Hypokalemia (see Hypokalemia, [[Hypokalemia]])
  • Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (see Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis, [[Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis]])
  • Idiopathic Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis
  • Laryngeal/Tracheal Fracture (see Tracheobronchial Fracture, [[Tracheobronchial Fracture]]): with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury
  • Lyme Disease (see Lyme Disease, [[Lyme Disease]])
    • Physiology: neuropathy involving the laryngeal nerves
  • Mediastinal Mass/Lymphadenopathy (see Mediastinal Mass, [[Mediastinal Mass]]): in cases where large mass or nodes impact the recurrent laryngeal nerves
  • Meningomyelocele
  • Mobius Syndrome
  • Myasthenia Gravis (see Myasthenia Gravis, [[Myasthenia Gravis]])
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) (see Paclitaxel, [[Paclitaxel]])
    • Physiology: neuropathy involving the laryngeal nerves
  • Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion (Vocal Cord Dysfunction) (see Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion, [[Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion]]): typically acute
  • Parkinson’s Disease (see Parkinson’s Disease, [[Parkinsons Disease]]): may be acute (particularly in the post-operative setting) or progressive
  • Postpolio Syndrome (see Poliomyelitis, [[Poliomyelitis]])
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) (see Rheumatoid Arthritis, [[Rheumatoid Arthritis]])
    • Physiology: arteritis of vasa vasorum of recurrent laryngeal (and vagus) nerves
  • Shy-Drager Syndrome
  • Synkinesis of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (see Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, [[Systemic Lupus Erythematosus]])
    • Physiology: neuropathy involving the laryngeal nerves
  • Vincristine (see Vincristine, [[Vincristine]])
    • Physiology: neuropathy involving the laryngeal nerves

Developmental Abnormality or Neoplasm the Involving Vocal Folds

  • Angioma
  • Carcinoma
  • Cervical Node Metastases: extrinsic compression of upper airway
  • Chondroma
  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Congenital Laryngeal Malformation
  • Cystic Hygroma
  • Granuloma
  • Histiocytoma
  • Lymphoma (see Lymphoma, [[Lymphoma]])
  • Papilloma
  • Polyp
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (see Rhabdomyosarcoma, [[Rhabdomyosarcoma]])
  • Thyroid Cancer (see Thyroid Cancer, [[Thyroid Cancer]])
  • Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (see Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, [[Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma]])

Intubation Injury to Vocal Folds (see Endotracheal Tube-Associated Laryngeal Injury, [[Endotracheal Tube-Associated Laryngeal Injury]])

  • Acute
    • Arytenoid Dislocation
    • Excessive Endotracheal Cuff Pressure with Compression of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Where It Enters the Larynx
    • Hyperextension of Neck with Vagus Nerve Injury
    • Larygneal Mask Airway (LMA)-Related Injury
    • Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Due to Anterior Thyroid Cartilage Displacement (Relative to the Cricoid Cartilage)
  • Chronic
    • Excessive Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure with Compression of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Where It Enters the Larynx
    • Posterior Glottic Stenosis (PGS): due to prolonged or traumatic intubation
    • Vocal Cord Granuloma

Mechanical/Iatrogenic Injury to Vocal Folds

  • Nasogastric Tube Syndrome (see Nasogastric Tube Syndrome, [[Nasogastric Tube Syndrome]]): first reported in 1981, it is believed to be due to paresis of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles secondary to ulceration and infection over the posterior lamina of the cricoid
    • Risk Group: diabetic renal transplant patients (due to prolonged gastroparesis and requirement for nasogastric tube drainage)
  • Proximal Esophageal Stent Placement
  • Radiation-Induced Injury
    • Radiation Injury to Vocal Cords (see Radiation Therapy, [[Radiation Therapy]])
    • Radiation Injury to Cricoarytenoid Joint see Radiation Therapy, [[Radiation Therapy]]): see Cricoarytenoid Arthritis above
    • Chondronecrosis

Surgical Injury to Vocal Folds

  • Anterior Cervical Disk Surgery: typically results in unilateral injury (which may compromise the upper airway if contralateral side was previously injured)
  • Brainstem Surgery: may result in bilateral injury
  • Cardiac Surgery
  • Carotid Endarterectomy: typically results in unilateral injury (which may compromise the upper airway if contralateral side was previously injured)
  • Endolaryngeal Surgery (Using CO2 Laser): may injur posterior glottis
  • Esophageal Surgery: may result in bilateral injury
  • Thyroid Surgery (accounts for 48% of all surgical cases): may result in bilateral injury
  • Parathyroid Surgery: may result in bilateral injury
  • Tracheal Surgery: may result in bilateral injury

Other Upper Airway Disease

Infection

  • Coccidioidomycosis (see Coccidioidomycosis, [[Coccidioidomycosis]]): typically mild upper airway obstruction
  • Croup (see Croup, [[Croup]]): typically acute
  • Cryptococcosis (see Cryptococcosis, [[Cryptococcosis]]): typically mild upper airway obstruction
  • Deep Neck Infection (see Deep Neck Infection, [[Deep Neck Infection]]): typically acute
    • Peritonsillar Abscess (see Peritonsillar Abscess, [[Peritonsillar Abscess]]): involving peritonsillar space
    • Pretracheal Abscess (see Pretracheal Abscess, [[Pretracheal Abscess]]): involving pretracheal space
    • Retropharyngeal Abscess (see Retropharyngeal Abscess, [[Retropharyngeal Abscess]]): involving retropharyngeal space
    • Submandibular Space Abscess/Ludwig’s Angina (see Ludwig’s Angina, [[Ludwigs Angina]]): involving submandibular space
  • Diphtheria (see Diphtheria, [[Diphtheria]]): typically acute
  • Epiglottitis (see Epiglottitis, [[Epiglottitis]]): typically acute
  • Histoplasmosis (see Histoplasmosis, [[Histoplasmosis]]): typically mild upper airway obstruction
  • Syphilis (see Syphilis, [[Syphilis]])

Miscellaneous

  • Ammonia Inhalation (see Ammonia, [[Ammonia]]): typically acute
  • Anaphylaxis (see Anaphylaxis, [[Anaphylaxis]]): typically acute
  • Angioedema (see Angioedema, [[Angioedema]]): typically acute
  • Congenital Small Cricoid Cartilage: typically progressive
  • Esophageal Foreign Body: extrinsic compression of upper airway, typically progressive
  • Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (see Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis, [[Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis]]): typically mild upper airway obstruction
  • Laryngeal Cyst/Laryngocele: typically mild upper airway obstruction
  • Laryngeal Rheumatoid Nodule (see Rheumatoid Arthritis, [[Rheumatoid Arthritis]]): typically progressive
  • Macroglossia: typically mild upper airway obstruction
  • Nasal Polyps (see Nasal Polyps, [[Nasal Polyps]]): typically mild upper airway obstruction
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (see Obstructive Sleep Apnea, [[Obstructive Sleep Apnea]]): typically acute
    • Particularly in post-op setting, etc
  • Strangulation/Near Hanging (see Near Hanging, [[Near Hanging]]): non-judicial hangings (where drop is <6.5-7.5 ft) do not fracture dens off, they result in death most commonly due to pulmonary complications
  • Thermal Injury/Burns of Upper Airway (see Smoke Inhalation, [[Smoke Inhalation]]): may be acute
    • Thermal injury is usually supraglottic (typically, laryngeal injury)
  • Thyromegaly/Goiter (see Goiter, [[Goiter]]): typically progressive
  • Tracheal Cyst: typically progressive
  • Tracheomalacia (see Tracheobronchomalacia, [[Tracheobronchomalacia]]): typically progressive
  • Tonsillar/Adenoid Enlargement: typically progressive
  • Unilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis (see Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility, [[Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility]]): typically mild upper airway obstruction
  • Upper Airway Foreign Body (see Airway Foreign Body, [[Airway Foreign Body]]): typically acute

Tracheobronchial/Central Airway Obstruction (see Central Airway Obstruction, [[Central Airway Obstruction]])

Tracheobronchial Infection

Tracheobronchial Neoplasm

Primary Tracheobronchial Tumor

Endobronchial Metastases (see also Lung Metastases-Endobronchial, [[Lung Metastases-Endobronchial]])

Extrinsic Tracheobronchial Compression

  • Enlarged Pulmonary Artery: extrinsic compression of tracheobronchial airways
    • Tetralogy of Fallot (see Tetralogy of Fallot, [[Tetralogy of Fallot]]): in infants and children
    • Transposition of Great Vessles with Ventricular Septal Defect: in infants and children
  • Granulomatous Mediastinitis and Fibrosing Mediastinitis (see Granulomatous Mediastinitis and Fibrosing Mediastinitis, [[Granulomatous Mediastinitis and Fibrosing Mediastinitis]])
    • Physiology: extrinsic compression of tracheobronchial airways
  • Mediastinal Mass (see Mediastinal Mass, [[Mediastinal Mass]]): extrinsic compression of tracheobronchial airways
    • Bulky Mediastinal or Peribronchial Lymphadenopathy
      • Cancer
      • Hodgkin’s Disease (see Hodgkin’s Disease, [[Hodgkins Disease]])
      • Lymphoma (see Lymphoma, [[Lymphoma]])
      • Tuberculosis (see Tuberculosis, [[Tuberculosis]]): involvement of mediastinal nodes may compress RML bronchus
      • Sarcoidosis (see Sarcoidosis, [[Sarcoidosis]])
    • Mediastinal Tumor
  • Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA) (see Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm, [[Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm]]): extrinsic compression of tracheobronchial airways
  • Thyroid Cancer/Thyromegaly/Goiter (see Goiter, [[Goiter]] and Thyroid Cancer, [[Thyroid Cancer]])
    • Physiology: extrinsic compression of trachea

Other Tracheobronchial Obstructive Process

  • Airway Foreign Body (see Airway Foreign Body, [[Airway Foreign Body]])
  • Blood Clot
    • Epidemiology: airway occlusion by blood clots typically occurs following significant hemoptysis
  • Bronchial Stenosis (see Bronchial Stenosis, [[Bronchial Stenosis]])
  • Bronchocentric Granulomatosis (see Bronchocentric Granulomatosis, [[Bronchocentric Granulomatosis]])
  • Broncholithiasis (see Broncholithiasis, [[Broncholithiasis]])
  • Bronchopulmonary Amyloidosis (see Amyloidosis, [[Amyloidosis]])
  • Goiter
  • Granulation Tissue
    • Airway Foreign Body
    • Airway Stent
    • Endotracheal Tube
    • Surgical Airway Anastomosis (see Lung Transplant, [[Lung Transplant]])
    • Tracheostomy Tube (see Tracheostomy, [[Tracheostomy]])
  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener’s Granulomatosis) (see Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, [[Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis]])
  • Hunter’s Syndrome
    • Epidemiology: with tracheal stenosis
  • Hurler’s Syndrome
    • Epidemiology: with tracheal stenosis
  • Mucous Plug (see Mucous Plug, [[Mucous Plug]])
    • Epidemiology: tracheobronchial obstruction by mucous plugging is common in patients with lung disease and infection in the ICU setting
  • Mucoid Impaction (see Mucoid Impaction, [[Mucoid Impaction]])
    • Physiology: tracheobronchial obstruction
  • Post-Extubation Tracheal Edema
  • Post-Pneumonectomy Syndrome (see Post-Pneumonectomy Syndrome, [[Post-Pneumonectomy Syndrome]])
  • Post-Radiation Therapy (see Radiation Therapy, [[Radiation Therapy]])
    • Physiology: bronchial granulation tissue (or stricture)
  • Relapsing Polychondritis (see Relapsing Polychondritis, [[Relapsing Polychondritis]])
    • Physiology: endotracheal or endobronchial obstruction by loss of supporting cartilage in airways
  • Saber Sheath Trachea (see Saber Sheath Trachea, [[Saber Sheath Trachea]])
  • Smoke Inhalation (see Smoke Inhalation, [[Smoke Inhalation]])
    • Physiology: tracheobronchial mucosal injury with sloughing and airway obstruction
  • Toxic Fume Airway Injury
    • Physiology: tracheobronchial mucosal injury with sloughing and airway obstruction
  • Tracheal Cyst (see Tracheal Cyst, [[Tracheal Cyst]])
  • Tracheal Stenosis (see Tracheal Stenosis, [[Tracheal Stenosis]])
  • Tracheal Trauma
  • Tracheobronchial Foreign Body (see Airway Foreign Body, [[Airway Foreign Body]])
  • Tracheobronchial Fracture (see Tracheobronchial Fracture, [[Tracheobronchial Fracture]])
  • Tracheoesophageal Fistula (see Tracheoesophageal Fistula, [[Tracheoesophageal Fistula]])
  • Tracheobronchomalacia (see Tracheobronchomalacia, [[Tracheobronchomalacia]])
  • Tracheobronchial Web
    • Epidemiology
  • Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica (see Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica, [[Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica]])

Other Airway Obstruction

Infection

Drug

  • Abacavir Hypersensitivity Reaction (see Abacavir, [[Abacavir]])
  • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors (see Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, [[Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors]]): rarely, may exacerbate bronchospasm
  • Aclidinium (Tudorza Pressair) (see Aclidinium, [[Aclidinium]]): may cause paradoxical bronchospasm
  • Adenosine (see Adenosine, [[Adenosine]])
  • Benzylisoquinolinium Neuromuscular Junction Antagonists (see Neuromuscular Junction Antagonists, [[Neuromuscular Junction Antagonists]]): mediated via histamine release
    • Alcuronium
    • Atracurium (Tracrium) (see Atracurium, [[Atracurium]])
    • Cisatracurium (see Cisatracurium, [[Cisatracurium]])
    • Doxacurium (see Doxacurium, [[Doxacurium]])
    • Mivacurium (see Mivacurium, [[Mivacurium]])
    • Tubocurarine
  • Beta Blockers (see β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists, [[β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists]])
  • Bronchodilator Agents Which Have Been Associated with Paradoxical Bronchospasm
  • Cetuximab (Erbitux) (see Cetuximab, [[Cetuximab]])
  • Cytokine Release Syndrome (see Cytokine Release Syndrome, [[Cytokine Release Syndrome]]): occurs with the administration of specific monoclonal antibodies
    • Alemtuzumab (Campath, MabCampath, Campath-1H, Lemtrada) (see Alemtuzumab, [[Alemtuzumab]])
    • Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATG) (see Anti-Thymocyte Globulin, [[Anti-Thymocyte Globulin]])
    • Lenalidomide (Revlimid) (see Lenalidomide, [[Lenalidomide]])
    • Muromonab-CD3 (Orthoclone OKT3)* (see Muromonab-CD3, [[Muromonab-CD3]])
    • Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin, Oxaliplatin Medac) (see Oxaliplatin, [[Oxaliplatin]])
    • Rituximab (Rituxan) (see Anti-CD20 Therapy, [[Anti-CD20 Therapy]])
  • Gemcitabine (see Gemcitabine, [[Gemcitabine]])
  • Interferon-Alpha (see Interferon, [[Interferon]])
  • Paclitaxel (see Paclitaxel, [[Paclitaxel]])
  • Mitomycin C (see Mitomycin, [[Mitomycin]])
  • N-Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst, Acetadote, Fluimucil, Parvolex) (see N-Acetylcysteine, [[N-Acetylcysteine): bronchospasm has been associated with inhaled and oral administration
  • Nitrofurantoin (see Nitrofurantoin, [[Nitrofurantoin]])
  • Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus) (see Ocrelizumab, [[Ocrelizumab]])
    • Epidemiology: bronchospasm may occur as a feature of infusion reaction
  • Opiates (see Opiates, [[Opiates]])
    • Codeine (see Codeine, [[Codeine]]): codeine causes histamine release
    • Fentanyl (see Fentanyl, [[Fentanyl]]): although histamine release is not believed to occur with fentanyl, bronchospasm has been reported in some cases
    • Meperidine (Demerol) (see Meperidine, [[Meperidine]]): meperidine causes histamine release
    • Morphine (see Morphine, [[Morphine]]): morphine causes histamine release
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol) (see Paclitaxel, [[Paclitaxel]])
  • Panitumumab (Vectibix) (see Panitumumab, [[Panitumumab]])
  • Rasburicase (Elitek) (see Rasburicase, [[Rasburicase]])
  • Ribavirin (see Ribavirin, [[Ribavirin]]): aerosolized
  • Teniposide (see Teniposide, [[Teniposide]])
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin) (see Trastuzumab, [[Trastuzumab]])
  • Vinblastine (see Vinblastine, [[Vinblastine]])
  • Zanamivir (Relenza) (see Zanamivir, [[Zanamivir]]): inhalational

Toxin

  • Acetic Acid Inhalation (see Acetic Acid, [[Acetic Acid]])
  • Ammonia Inhalation (see Ammonia, [[Ammonia]])
  • Bromine Inhalation/Methyl Bromide Inhalation (see Bromine-Methyl Bromide, [[Bromine-Methyl Bromide]])
  • Chlorine Gas/Aerosol Inhalation (see Chlorine, [[Chlorine]])
  • Chloropicrin Gas Inhalation (see Chloropicrin Gas, [[Chloropicrin Gas]])
  • Cholinergic Intoxication (see Cholinergic Intoxication, [[Cholinergic Intoxication]])
    • Cigua Toxin Poisoning (see Cigua Toxin Poisoning, [[Cigua Toxin Poisoning]])
    • Organophosphate/Carbamate Intoxication (see Organophosphates-Carbamates, [[Organophosphates-Carbamates]])
    • Scorpion Sting (see Scorpion Sting, [[Scorpion Sting]])
      • Associated Scorpion Species
        • Centuroides Exilicauda (Sculpuratus)
        • Centuroides Suffusus
    • Toxic Mushrooms (see Toxic Mushrooms, [[Toxic Mushrooms]])
      • Associated Mushrooms
        • Boletus Calopus
        • Clitocybe Dealbata
        • Clitocybe Illudens
        • Inocybe Fastigiata
      • Toxin: muscarine acts at muscarinic receptors in autonomic nervous system
  • Chromic Acid Inhalation (see Chromic Acid, [[Chromic Acid]])
  • Diborane Gas Inhalation (see Diborane Gas, [[Diborane Gas]])
  • Dinitrogen Tetroxide Inhalation (see Dinitrogen Tetroxide, [[Dinitrogen Tetroxide]])
  • Hydrofluoric Acid Inhalation (see Hydrofluoric Acid, [[Hydrofluoric Acid]])
  • Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Inhalation (see Hydrogen Sulfide Gas, [[Hydrogen Sulfide Gas]])
  • Metal Fume Fever (see Metal Fume Fever, [[Metal Fume Fever]])
  • Methamphetamine (see Methamphetamine, [[Methamphetamine]])
  • Methyl Isocyanate Inhalation (see Methyl Isocyanate, [[Methyl Isocyanate]])
  • Methyl Isothiocyanate Inhalation (see Methyl Isothiocyanate, [[Methyl Isothiocyanate]])
  • Neurotoxic Shellfish Inhalation (see Neurotoxic Shellfish, [[Neurotoxic Shellfish]])
    • Epidemiology: risk is highest in patients with asthma and chronic lung disease
    • Physiology: inhalation of aerosolized brevetoxins
  • Nitric Acid Inhalation (see Nitric Acid, [[Nitric Acid]])
  • Nitrogen Dioxide Inhalation (see Nitrogen Dioxide, [[Nitrogen Dioxide]])
  • Ozone Inhalation (see Ozone, [[Ozone]])
  • Phosgene Gas Inhalation (see Phosgene Gas, [[Phosgene Gas]])
  • Phosphine Gas Inhalation (see Phosphine Gas, [[Phosphine Gas]])
  • Polymer Fume Fever (see Polymer Fume Fever, [[Polymer Fume Fever]])
  • Smoke Inhalation (see Smoke Inhalation, [[Smoke Inhalation]])
  • Sulfur Dioxide Inhalation (see Sulfur Dioxide, [[Sulfur Dioxide]])
  • Sulfuric Acid Inhalation (see Sulfuric Acid, [[Sulfuric Acid]])
  • Sulfur Mustard Gas Inhalation (see Sulfur Mustard Gas, [[Sulfur Mustard Gas]])
  • Tear Gas Inhalation (see Tear Gas, [[Tear Gas]])
  • VX Nerve Agent (see VX Nerve Agent, [[VX Nerve Agent]])
  • Zinc Chloride Gas Inhalation (Smoke Bomb Exposure) (see Zinc Chloride Gas, [[Zinc Chloride Gas]])

Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia Syndrome (see Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia, [[Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia]])

Bronchiolitis Syndrome

Other

  • Acute Pulmonary Embolism (see Acute Pulmonary Embolism, [[Acute Pulmonary Embolism]])
  • Air Embolism (see Air Embolism, [[Air Embolism]])
  • Airway Foreign Body (see Airway Foreign Body, [[Airway Foreign Body]])
  • Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (see Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, [[Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency]])
  • Anaphylaxis (see Anaphylaxis, [[Anaphylaxis]])
    • Epidemiology: pulmonary manifestations occur in 70% of cases of anaphylaxis
    • Clinical
      • Dry Cough (see Cough, [[Cough]])
      • Dyspnea (see Dyspnea, [[Dyspnea]])
      • Tachypnea (see Tachypnea, [[Tachypnea]])
      • Wheezing (see Wheezing, [[Wheezing]])
  • Asthma (see Asthma, [[Asthma]])
    • Epidemiology: obstruction may be intermittent (during acute exacerbation) or persistent
    • Clinical
  • Beta Thalassemia Major (see Thalassemias, [[Thalassemias]])
    • Physiology: small airway obstructive airway defects may occur (for unclear reasons)
    • Diagnosis
      • Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT’s) (see Pulmonary Function Tests, [[Pulmonary Function Tests]]): PFT defects correct with transfusion and do not correlate with the iron burden, blood counts, or the degree of hemolysis
  • Bronchiectasis (see Bronchiectasis, [[Bronchiectasis]])
    • Epidemiology: xxx
  • Byssinosis (see Byssinosis, [[Byssinosis]])
  • Cardiac Asthma (see Congestive Heart Failure, [[Congestive Heart Failure]])
  • Cholinergic Intoxication (see Cholinergic Intoxication, [[Cholinergic Intoxication]])
  • Chronic Berylliosis (see Beryllium, [[Beryllium]])
    • Clinical
      • May Present with a Sarcoidosis-Like Multisystem Disease: wheezing, etc
  • Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) (see Chronic Granulomatous Disease, [[Chronic Granulomatous Disease]])
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (see Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, [[Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease]])
  • Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (see Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema, [[Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema]])
  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) (see Common Variable Immunodeficiency, [[Common Variable Immunodeficiency]])
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF) (see Cystic Fibrosis, [[Cystic Fibrosis]])
  • Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia (DIPNECH) (see Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia, [[Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia]])
  • Fabry Disease (see Fabry Disease, [[Fabry Disease]])
  • Foreign Body Granulomatosis (see Foreign Body Granulomatosis, [[Foreign Body Granulomatosis]])
  • Hypocalcemia (see Hypocalcemia, [[Hypocalcemia]])
  • Isolated IgA Deficiency (see Isolated IgA Deficiency, [[Isolated IgA Deficiency]])
  • Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (see Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis, [[Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis]])
    • Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT’s) (see Pulmonary Function Tests, [[Pulmonary Function Tests]])
      • Earlier Nodular Disease: Normal PFT’s or Restrictive PFT’s with Decreased DLCO
      • Later Cystic Disease: Obstruction (with Possible Bronchodilator Responsiveness) and Hyperinflation
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) (see Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, [[Lymphangioleiomyomatosis]])
    • Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT’s) (see Pulmonary Function Tests, [[Pulmonary Function Tests]])
      • Normal: 57% of cases
      • Obstructive Pattern (see Obstructive Lung Disease, [[Obstructive Lung Disease]]): 34% of cases
      • Mixed Pattern: 9% of cases
      • Bronchodilator Responsiveness (β2 Agonists or Muscarinic Antagonists): 30% of cases (those with bronchodilator responsiveness have a lower baseline FEV1)
      • Hyperinflation with Increased TLC: common
      • Gas Trapping with Increased RV and RV/TLC Ratio: common
      • Decreased DLCO (although may be increased during episodes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage)
  • Marfan Syndrome (see Marfan Syndrome, [[Marfan Syndrome]])
  • Microscopic Polyangiitis (see Microscopic Polyangiitis, [[Microscopic Polyangiitis]])
  • Mineral Dust Airway Disease
  • Occupational Asthma (see Asthma-Occupational, [[Asthma-Occupational]])
  • Post-Infection Obstructive Airways Disease
  • Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (see Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, [[Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia]])
  • Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) (see Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome, [[Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome]])
  • Selective IgG Subclass Deficiency (see Selective IgG Subclass Deficiency, [[Selective IgG Subclass Deficiency]])
  • Sjogren’s Syndrome (see Sjogrens Syndrome, [[Sjogrens Syndrome]])
  • Swyer-James-Macleod Syndrome (see Swyer-James-Macleod Syndrome, [[Swyer-James-Macleod Syndrome]])
  • Tuberous Sclerosis (see Tuberous Sclerosis, [[Tuberous Sclerosis]])
    • Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT’s) (see Pulmonary Function Tests, [[Pulmonary Function Tests]]): Obstruction with Decreased DLCO and Preserved Lung Volumes

Clinical Manifestations

Pulmonary Manifestations

Wheezing (see Wheezing)

  • Epidemiology: common

References

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