Hypocapnia


Definitions

Hyperventilation (see Hyperventilation)

Hyperpnea (see Hyperpnea)

Tachypnea (see Tachypnea)

Hypocapnia

Alkalemia

Respiratory Alkalosis (see Respiratory Alkalosis)


Etiology of Hyperventilation/Hypocapnia/Respiratory Alkalosis (see Hyperventilation and Respiratory Alkalosis)

Cardiovascular Disease-Induced Hyperventilation

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) (see Congestive Heart Failure)

Hypotension (see Hypotension)

Central Nervous System Disease

Fever/Sepsis-Induced Hyperventilation (see Fever and Sepsis)

Physiology

Hypoxemia-Induced Hyperventilation

High Altitude (see Chronic Mountain Sickness)

Intracardiac Shunt (see Intracardiac and Extracardiac Shunt)

Pulmonary Disease (of Any Etiology Resulting in Hypoxemia)

Metabolic Disorder-Induced Hyperventilation

Acidosis (i.e. Acidemia of Any Etiology) (see Metabolic Acidosis-Elevated Anion Gap and Metabolic Acidosis-Normal Anion Gap)

Hyperthyroidism (see Hyperthyroidism)

Liver Disease

Neurologic/Psychogenic Disorder-Induced Hyperventilation

Brainstem Tumor

Central Nervous System Infection

Intracerebral Hemorrhage (see Intracerebral Hemorrhage)

Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (see Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident)

Psychogenic Hyperventilation

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (see Traumatic Brain Injury)

Pain-Induced Hyperventilation

Physiology

Pregnancy (and Luteal Phase of Menstrual Cycle)-Induced Hyperventilation (see Pregnancy)

Physiology

Pulmonary Disease-Induced Hyperventilation

Asthma (see Asthma)

Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema (see Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema)

Chest Wall Disease

Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)/Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia/Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) (see Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia)

Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) (see Interstitial Lung Disease)

Pneumothorax (see Pneumothorax)

Pulmonary Vascular Disease

Drug-Induced Hyperventilation

Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists (see β2-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists)

Methylxanthines

Progesterone (see Progesterone)

Salicylate Intoxication (see Salicylates)


Physiology

Hypocapnic Alkalosis is Synonymous with Respiratory Alkalosis (see Respiratory Alkalosis)


Clinical Manifestations of of Hyperventilation/Hypocapnia/Respiratory Alkalosis (see Hyperventilation and Respiratory Alkalosis)

General Comments

Cardiovascular Manifestations

Arrhythmias

Chest Pain (see xxxx)

Myocardial Ischemia (see Coronary Artery Disease)

Palpitations (see Palpitations)

Syncope (see Syncope)

Dermatologic Manifestations

Diaphoresis (see Diaphoresis)

Neurologic Manifestations

Carpopedal Spasm (see Carpopedal Spasm)

Dizziness/lightheadedness (see Dizziness)

Muscle Cramps (see Muscle Cramps)

Neonatal Brain Injury

Paresthesias (see Paresthesias)

Poorer Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (see Traumatic Brain Injury)

Poorer Outcome in Acute Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (see Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident)

Postoperative Psychomotor Dysfunction

Seizures (see Seizures)

Tetany (see Tetany)

Pulmonary Manifestations

Bronchospasm (see Bronchospasm)

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (see Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)


References