Hyperventilation (see Hyperventilation)

  • Definition
    • Hyperventilation is Defined as an Increase in Respiratory Rate and/or Tidal Volume, Resulting in the Elimination of More Carbon Dioxide than the Body Produces
      • Hyperventilation Results in Hypocapnia (Decreased Arterial pCO2) and Respiratory Alkalosis (at Least Initially, Until Renal Compensation Results in Bicarbonate Excretion with an Eventual Decrease in the pH Back Toward Normal) (see Respiratory Alkalosis)

Hyperpnea (see Hyperpnea)

  • Definition
    • Hyperpnea is Defined as an Increase in Tidal Volume with or without an Increase in Respiratory Rate

Tachypnea (see Tachypnea)

  • Definition
    • Tachypnea is Defined as an Increase in Respiratory Rate

Hypocapnia (see Hypocapnia)

  • Definition
    • Hypocapnia is Defined as Decrease in Arterial pCO2 (i.e. Decreased Arterial Blood Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide) to <40 mm Hg


  • Definition
    • Alkalemia is Defined as Increase in the Arterial pH to >7.40
  • Note that a Patient Can Be Alkalemic without Having a Respiratory Alkalosis
    • Example
      • Metabolic Alkalosis Can Produce Alkalemia without the Presence of a Respiratory Alkalosis

Respiratory Alkalosis (see Respiratory Alkalosis)

  • Definition
    • Respiratory Alkalosis is Defined as an Acid-Base Disorder Characterized by a Decrease in Arterial pCO2 with an Associated Increase in Arterial pH (at Least Initially)
  • Note that a Patient Can Have a Respiratory Alkalosis without Being Alkalemic
    • Example
      • Due to Normal Compensatory Mechanisms, Chronic Respiratory Alkalosis Induces Metabolic (Predominantly Renal) Compensation (with a Progressive Decrease in Serum Bicarbonate Over Time), Culminating in Only Minimal/Absent Alkalemia



Clinical Manifestations