• Central Nervous System Malformations
    • Chiari Malformation
    • Dandy-Walker Malformation
    • Vein of Galen Malformation
  • Choroid Plexus Papilloma/Carcinoma
  • Intrauterine Infection
  • Isolated Congenital Hydrocephalus: due to congenital aqueductal stenosis or from inflammation associated with intrauterine infection
  • Neural Tube Defect
    • Encephalocele
    • Myelomeningocele
  • Syndromic Hydrocephalus
    • Hydrolethalus Syndrome
    • Triploidy
    • Trisomy 13/18/9/9p
    • Walker-Warburg Syndrome
  • X-Linked Hydrocephalus


Post-Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus

  • General Comments
    • Hemorrhage in the Subarachnoid Space (or Ventricles) -> Inflammatory Response and Fibrosis -> Predominantly Impaired CSF Absorption (Communicating Hydrocephalus) and Some Degree of Obstruction
  • Intraventricular Hemorrhage
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) (see Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, [[Subarachnoid Hemorrhage]])

Posterior Fossa Tumors

  • Astrocytoma
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Ependymoma


Low Pressure Hydrocephalus

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Mechanisms of Hydrocephalus

  • Communicating Hydrocephalus: impaired CSF absorption
  • Obstructive Hydrocephalus: obstructed flow of CSF


Head CT (see Head Computed Tomography, [[Head Computed Tomography]])

  • Features Which Suggest Hydrocephalus Rather Than Ventriculomegaly Due to Atrophy
    • Dilation of Temporal Horns of Lateral Ventricle
    • Effacement of the Cortical Sulci
    • Enlargement of the Recesses of 3rd Ventricle
    • Interstitial Edema of Periventricular Tissues: seen on T2-weighted or FLAIR brain MRI

Brain MRI (see Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging, [[Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging]])

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Lumbar Puncture (LP) (see Lumbar Puncture, [[Lumbar Puncture]])

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Clinical Manifestations

Neurologic Manifestations

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