• Formerly classified as nutritionally variant streptococci (see also Granulicatella Granulicatella, [[Granulicatella]])
  • Granulicatella and Abiotrophia species are normal flora in the mouth, urogenital tract, and intestine

Members of Abiotrophia Genus

  • Abiotrophia defectiva


  • Endocarditis (see Endocarditis, [[Endocarditis]]): reported with Abiotrophia defectiva
    • Approximately 5% of infective endocarditis cases are caused by nutritionally variant streptococci strains


  • Clinical course with nutritionally variant streptococci strains is often more severe than that in cases caused by enterococci or viridans streptococci [MEDLINE]
  • Infections are difficult to treat: relapse rate of 41%, despite appropriate antibiotics [MEDLINE]


  • Endocarditis due to nutritionally deficient streptococci: therapeutic dilemma. Rev Infect Dis. 1987;9:908–916 [MEDLINE]
  • Abiotrophia endocarditis: case report and review of the literature. Can J Cardiol 2005; 21. pp. 1309–11 [MEDLINE]
  • Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis and associated hemophagocytic syndrome–a first case report and review of the literature. Int J Infect Dis. 2008 Sep;12(5):478-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2008.01.014. Epub 2008 Jun 9 [MEDLINE]
  • Granulicatella and Abiotrophia Species from Human Clinical Specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 [MEDLINE]
  • Endocarditis caused by nutritionally variant streptococci: a case report and literature review. Infez Med. 2012 Jun;20(2):67-74 [MEDLINE]