N Engl J Med. 1986 Dec 18;315(25):1591-5.
The acidosis of cholera. Contributions of hyperproteinemia, lactic acidemia, and hyperphosphatemia to an increased serum anion gap.
Wang F, Butler T, Rabbani GH, Jones PK.
To study the metabolic acidosis that occurs during the diarrhea of cholera, we examined the serum anion gap in 21 patients with hypovolemic shock due to Vibrio cholerae infection. Measurements of serum electrolytes, as well as divalent cations and the anionic contributions of serum proteins, lactate, phosphate, and serum creatinine, were made at the time of admission, after rehydration, and during convalescence. At the time of admission, the mean serum concentration of sodium was 134.8 mmol (meq) per liter, that of chloride was 103.2 mmol per liter, and that of bicarbonate was 11.4 mmol per liter; the mean anion gap was 20.2 mmol per liter. The mean serum creatinine concentration was 2.48 mg per deciliter. The low serum bicarbonate level and the high serum anion gap were corrected by rehydration. The increased serum anion gap was caused by hyperproteinemia, lactic acidemia, and hyperphosphatemia, with anionic contributions to the rise in anion gap estimated as protein, 5.5 meq per liter; lactate, 2.5 meq per liter; and phosphate, 2.5 meq per liter. The hyperproteinemia was attributed to dehydration, the lactic acidemia to shock, and the hyperphosphatemia to acidosis and transient renal failure. The mean concentrations of serum calcium and magnesium were slightly elevated but did not affect the increased anion gap. These results indicate that severe cholera causes acidosis with relatively little change in serum chloride but an increased serum anion gap. The acidosis is more profound than would be expected on the basis of stool losses of bicarbonate, because of superimposed lactic acidemia and renal failure.
PMID: 3785323 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Hepatogastroenterology. 2007 Dec;54(80):2301-5.
Significance of hyperglobulinemia in severe chronic liver diseases–with special reference to the correlation between serum globulin/IgG level and ICG clearance.
Tanaka S1, Okamoto Y, Yamazaki M, Mitani N, Nakqjima Y, Fukui H.
Author information

Although hyperglobulinemia is frequently detected in severe chronic liver diseases (CLD) such as liver cirrhosis (LC), the mechanism for this is still uncertain. Hyperglobulinemia may represent a functional aspect of the liver.
The correlation between serum globulin (GLB) level and each of various liver function tests including the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 min (ICGR15) was studied using 146 patients with liver dysfunction. The correlations among GLB, IgG and ICGR15 were also studied in other 32 patients with LC, in whom the glycosylation pattern of IgG was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect terminal galactose (Gal) and neuraminic acid (NA) using biotinylated lectins.
GLB level was predominantly correlated with ICGR15 (r = 0.449) among various liver function tests in 146 patients with liver dysfunction. In the 32 patients with LC, strong positive correlations between GLB and IgG (r = 0.875), between GLB and ICGR15 (r = 0.435), and between IgG and ICGR15 (r = 0.557) were evident. The glycosylation pattern of IgG showed that the proportions of both Gal and NA were inversely correlated with serum IgG levels (r = -0.516 and -0.390, respectively) in these patients. Significant decreases of the proportions were found in patients with IgG elevation (> 20 g/L, n = 13).
The correlation between GLB and ICGR15 suggested that hyperglobulinemia is related to a common dysfunction estimated by ICG clearance, which represents mainly the liver’s blood flow and removal capacity. The removal of immunoglobulins by the liver may be impaired in patients with severe liver dysfunction because the liver is a major catabolic site for immunoglobulins. The glycation pattern suggested that the proportions of asialo IgG and agalactosyl IgG were increased in the LC patients with IgG elevation possibly by deficient receptor-mediated removal in the liver. Although further investigations will be needed, hyperglobulinemia could be predictive for a certain impaired hepatic function estimated by ICG clearance in severe CLD such as LC.
PMID: 18265652 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]