Pneumatosis Intestinalis

Etiology

Benign Etiologies

  • Pulmonary
    • Asthma
    • Bronchitis
    • Emphysema
    • Pulmonary fibrosis
    • Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)
    • Cystic fibrosis
  • Systemic disease
    • Scleroderma
    • SLE
    • AIDS
  • Intestinal causes
    • Pyloric stenosis
    • Intestinal pseudoobstruction
    • Enteritis
    • Peptic ulcers
    • Bowel obstruction
    • Adynamic ileus
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
      • Ulcerative colitis
      • Crohn’s disease
    • Leukemia
    • Perforated jejunal diverticulum
    • Whipple’s disease
    • Intestinal parasites
    • Collagen vascular disease (especially scleroderma)
    • Diverticulitis
  • Iatrogenic
    • Barium enema
    • Jejunoileal bypass
    • Jejunostomy tubes
    • Postsurgical anastomosis
    • Endoscopy
  • Medications
    • Corticosteroids
    • Chemotherapeutic agents
    • Lactulose
    • Sorbitol
    • Voglibose
  • Organ transplantation
    • Bone marrow
    • Kidney
    • Liver
    • Cardiac
    • Lung
    • Graft versus host
  • Primary pneumatosis
    • Idiopathic (up to 15% of cases and usually involves the colon)
    • Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis

Life-Threatening Etiologies

  • Intestinal ischemia
  • Mesenteric vascular disease
  • Intestinal obstruction (especially strangulation)
  • Enteritis
  • Colitis
  • Ingestion of corrosive agents
  • Toxic megacolon
  • Trauma
  • Organ transplantation (especially bone marrow transplants)
  • Collagen vascular disease

References

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