Clinical Patterns of Brain Dysfunction

  • Akinetic Mutism
  • Brain Death (see Brain Death, [[Brain Death]])
  • Coma (see Obtundation-Coma, [[Obtundation-Coma]])
  • Dementia (see Dementia, [[Dementia]])
  • Locked-In Syndrome (see Locked-In Syndrome, [[Locked-In Syndrome]])
  • Persistent Vegetative State: term was first used in 1972
  • Minimally Conscious State



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Neurodegenerative Disease

  • Alzheimer Disease (see Alzheimer Disease, [[Alzheimer Disease]])
  • Frontotemporal Dementia
  • Neurodegenerative Disease Associated with Tau
  • Lewy Body Dementia
  • Parkinson’s Disease (see Parkinson’s Disease, [[Parkinsons Disease]])

Vascular Disease

  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
  • Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)
  • Primary Central Nervous System Angiitis
  • Secondary Central Nervous System Vasculitis
    • ANCA-Associated Vasculitis
    • Behcet’s Disease (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
    • Cryoglobulinemia (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
    • Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
    • Varicella Zoster Virus-Associated Vasculitis (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Vascular Dementia

Infectious Disease

  • Herpes Encephalitis (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) (see Human Immunodeficiency Virus, [[Human Immunodeficiency Virus]])
  • Neurosyphilis (see Syphilis, [[Syphilis]])
  • Prion Disease
    • Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (CJD) (see Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease, [[Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease]])
    • Fatal Familial Insomnia
    • Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (see xxx)
  • Whipple Disease (see Whipple Disease, [[Whipple Disease]])

Inflammatory/Autoimmune Disease

  • Autoimmune Dementia
  • Multiple Sclerosis (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Paraneoplastic and Autoimmune Lumbic Encephalitis
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Sjogren’s Syndrome (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Behcet’s Disease (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])

Neurometabolic Disease

  • Adult Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (ANCL)
  • Leukodystrophies
  • Mitcohondrial Disease


  • Anti-Cholinergic Agents (see Anti-Cholinergic Intoxication, [[Anti-Cholinergic Intoxication]]) [MEDLINE]
    • Epidemiology: anticholinergic-induced cognitive impairment is generally considered reversible on discontinuation of anticholinergic therapy
      • However, studies suggest that anticholinergic agents may be associated with an increased risk for dementia
    • Prospective Cohort Study (JAMA Intern Med, 2015) [MEDLINE]: higher cumulative anticholinergic use (most commonly tricyclic antidepressants, first-generation antihistamines, and bladder anti-muscarinics) was associated with an increased risk for dementia
  • Ethanol Abuse (see Ethanol, [[Ethanol]])



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Clinical Manifestations

Other Manifestations

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  • American Geriatrics Society 2015 Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Nov;63(11):2227-46. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13702. Epub 2015 Oct 8 [MEDLINE]
  • Cumulative use of strong anticholinergics and incident dementia: a prospective cohort study. JAMA Intern Med 2015;175:401-407 [MEDLINE]