Proteus Mirabilis


  • Member of Proteus Genus (see Proteus)
    • Non-Lactose Fermenting Gram Negative Rod
    • Possesses Urease (Splits Urea into Ammonia, Which Binds to Magnesium??)
      • Enhances Struvite Stone Formation, Complicating Clearance of the Organism


  • Proteus antigens were found to share homologous sequences, which cross-react with certain self-antigens present in synovial tissues (Clin Exp Rheumatol, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Clinical Manifestations

Cardiovascular Manifestations

Endocarditis (see Endocarditis)

  • Epidemiology
    • Case Report in Patient with Liver Transplant (Proteus Mirabilis was Isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and from the Explanted Aortic Valve) (BMJ Case Rep, 2019) [MEDLINE]

Gastrointestinal Manifestations

Gastroenteritis (see Acute Gastroenteritis)

  • Epidemiology
    • XXXXX

Otolaryngologic Manifestations

Acute Rhinosinusitis (see Acute Rhinosinusitis)

  • Epidemiology
    • Proteus Mirabilis May Be Associated with Sinusitis in Neurologically-Impaired Children (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 1998) [MEDLINE]
    • Proteus Mirabilis May Be Associated with ICU-Associated Nosocomial Sinusitis (Braz J Otorhinolaryngol, 2011) [MEDLINE]

Chronic Sinusitis (see Chronic Sinusitis)

  • Epidemiology
    • Proteus Mirabilis May Be Associated (J Rhinol, 1997) [MEDLINE]

Pulmonary Manifestations

Airway Complications in Lung Transplant Patients (see Lung Transplant)

  • Epidemiology
    • Proteus Mirabilis Airway Colonization Has Been Associated with Increased Airway Complications Requiring Intervention in Lung Transplant Patients (Transplant Proc, 2020) [MEDLINE]

Lung Abscess (see Lung Abscess)

  • Epidemiology
    • Case Report of Lung Abscess Associated with Proteus Mirabilis (Clin Infect Dis, 1996) [MEDLINE]
    • Case Report of Pediatric Lung Abscess (at Least Partially) Associated with Proteus Mirabilis (J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2005) [MEDLINE]

Pneumonia (see Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia)

  • Epidemiology
    • Hospital-Acquired Proteus Mirabilis Pneumonia Cases May Occur (Although Less Commonly Than Other Microbiologic Etiologies of HAP/VAP) (Rev Infect Dis, 1985) [MEDLINE] (J Infect Chemother, 2010) [MEDLINE]
    • Case Report of Proteus Mirabilis Pneumonia in Cystic Fibrosis Patient (Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 1990) [MEDLINE]
  • Clinical
    • Pneumatocele Formation Has Been Reported in Some Cases (Postgrad Med J, 1985) [MEDLINE] (Indian J Pediatr, 1987) [MEDLINE]
  • Treatment
    • Cefepime is Effective (BMC Pharmacol Toxicol, 2016) [MEDLINE]

Renal Manifestations

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) (see Urinary Tract Infection) (Trends Microbiol, 2017) [MEDLINE]

  • Epidemiology
    • XXXXX

Other Manifestations

  • Bacteremia
    • Epidemiology
      • XXXX
  • Wound Infection


  • xxxx


  • Pneumatocele formation in a patient with Proteus mirabilis pneumonia. Postgrad Med J. 1985 Mar;61(713):255-7. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.61.713.255 [MEDLINE]
  • Comparison of aztreonam and tobramycin in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by gram-negative bacilli. Rev Infect Dis. Nov-Dec 1985;7 Suppl 4:S666-8. doi: 10.1093/clinids/7.supplement_4.s666 [MEDLINE]
  • Proteus mirabilis pneumonia with giant pneumatocele. Indian J Pediatr. Jul-Aug 1987;54(4):593-7. doi: 10.1007/BF02749061 [MEDLINE]
  • Proteus mirabilis as a cause of recurrent lung infection in a cystic fibrosis patient. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990 Mar;9(3):234-5. doi: 10.1007/BF01963848 [MEDLINE]
  • Lung abscess in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Jan;22(1):81-5. doi: 10.1093/clinids/22.1.81 [MEDLINE]
  • Bacteriology of ethmoid sinus in chronic sinusitis. J Rhinol. Mar-Apr 1997;11(2):133-7. doi: 10.2500/105065897782537179 [MEDLINE]
  • Sinusitis in neurologically impaired children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998 Oct;119(4):357-60. doi: 10.1016/S0194-5998(98)70078-6 [MEDLINE]
  • Clinical management and outcome of childhood lung abscess: a 16-year experience. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2005 Jun;38(3):183-8 [MEDLINE]
  • Clinical features of Proteus mirabilis pneumonia. J Infect Chemother. 2010 Oct;16(5):364-6. doi: 10.1007/s10156-010-0059-3 [MEDLINE]
  • Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Hangzhou, China. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010 Sep;123(18):2568-70 [MEDLINE]
  • [Nosocomial sinusitis in an intensive care unit: a microbiological study]. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. Jan-Feb 2011;77(1):102-6 [MEDLINE]
  • Cefepime shows good efficacy and no antibiotic resistance in pneumonia caused by Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis – an observational study. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016 Mar 23;17:10. doi: 10.1186/s40360-016-0056-y [MEDLINE]
  • The link between Proteus mirabilis, environmental factors and autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. Sep-Oct 2017;35(5):865-871 [MEDLINE]
  • From Catheter to Kidney Stone: The Uropathogenic Lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis. Trends Microbiol. 2017 Apr;25(4):304-315. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.015 [MEDLINE]
  • Proteus mirabilis Overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;2021:1-4. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9601-8_1 [MEDLINE]
  • Proteus mirabilis endocarditis. BMJ Case Rep. 2019 Aug 28;12(8):e230575. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-230575 [MEDLINE]
  • Microbiological Status as a Factor of Airway Complications After Lung Transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2020 Sep;52(7):2149-2154. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.02.111 [MEDLINE]