Adenoviruses

Epidemiology

XXXXXX

  • xxx

Virology

Adenoviruses (Family: Adenoviridae)

  • Adenoviruses are Non-Enveloped DNA Viruses
  • In Humans, There are Approximately 88 Adenoviruses in 7 Different Species (Species A-G)
    • Respiratory Disease is Predominantly Associated with Adenovirus Species HAdV-B and HAdV-C
    • Conjunctivitis is Predominantly Associated with Adenovirus Species HAdV-B and D
    • Gastroenteritis is Predominantly Associated with Adenovirus Species HAdV-F Types 40, 41, HAdV-G Type 52
    • Obesity/Adipogenesis is Predominantly Associated with Adenovirus Species HAdV-A type 31, HAdV-C Type 5, HAdV-D Types 9/36/37

Diagnosis

Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Respiratory Pathogen Panel (see xxxx)

General Comments

  • xxx

BioFire Panel (Biomérieux)


Clinical Manifestations

Dermatologic Manifestations

Erythema Multiforme (see Erythema Multiforme)

  • Epidemiology
    • XXXXX

Morbilliform Rash (see Exanthems)

  • Epidemiology
    • XXXXX

Ophthalmologic Manifestations

Conjunctivitis (see Conjunctivitis)

  • Epidemiology
    • XXXXX

Otolaryngologic Manifestations

Acute Pharyngitis (see Acute Pharyngitis)

  • Epidemiology
    • Adenovirus More Commonly Presents with Pharyngitis and Fever than Common Cold Symptoms

Acute Rhinosinusitis (see Acute Rhinosinusitis)

  • Epidemiology
    • XXXXX

Common Cold (see Common Cold)

  • Epidemiology
    • Adenoviruses Account for <5% of Common Cold Cases

Pulmonary Manifestations

Acute Bronchitis (see Acute Bronchitis)

  • Epidemiology
    • XXXXX

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (see Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

  • Epidemiology
    • XXXXX

Bronchiolitis (see Bronchiolitis)

  • Epidemiology
    • XXXXX

Influenza-Like Illness

  • Clinical
    • General Comments
      • Rapid Onset of Constitutional Symptoms
      • Upper/Lower Respiratory Tract Symptoms Occur Concurrently or After the Constitutional Symptoms
    • Asthenia (see Asthenia)
      • Common in Second Week of Illness
    • Clear Nasal Discharge without Obstruction
      • Common
    • Dry (Often Persistent) Cough (see Cough)
      • Predominates Later in the First Week of Illness
    • Excess Tearing (Lacrimation) (see Lacrimation)
      • Common Early in the Illness
    • Fatigue (see Fatigue)
      • Common in second week of illness
    • Fever/Chills (see Fever)
      • Common Early in the Illness
      • Peaks to 39-40 degrees C
      • Lasts for 1-5 days
    • Headache (see Headache)
      • Common Early in the Illness
    • Mild Conjunctivitis (see Conjunctivitis)
      • Common
    • Mild, Tender Cervical Lymphadenopathy (see Lymphadenopathy)
      • Common
    • Myalgias (see Myalgias)
      • Common Early in the Illness
    • Pain with Eye Movement
      • Common Early in the Illness
    • Pharyngeal Injection/Pharyngitis (see Pharyngitis)
      • Common
    • Photophobia (see Photophobia)
      • Common Early in the Illness

Pneumonia (see Pneumonia)

  • Epidemiology
    • Adenovirus May Cause Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Immunocompromised Patients
    • Adenovirus Has Been Associated with Acute Respiratory Disease in Military Recruits
    • CDC EPIC Study of Children Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia (NEJM, 2015) [MEDLINE]
      • Annual Incidence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization: 15.7 cases per 10k children <18 y/o
      • A Pathogen was Identified in 81% of Cases
      • Adenovirus was Detected in 9.8% of Cases

Treatment

Supportive Care

  • xxx

References

  • Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 26;372(9):835-45. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1405870 [MEDLINE]