Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)


Definitions


Epidemiology

Statistics

Risk Factors

Relative Prevalence of Etiologies in Patients Who Initially Presented with Unexplained Dilated Cardiomyopathy (NEJM, 2000) [MEDLINE]


Etiologic Classification (American Heart Association Classification, 2006) [MEDLINE]

General Comments

Primary Cardiomyopathies (Predominantly Involving the Heart)

Genetic

Mixed (Predominantly Non-Genetic; Familial Disease with a Genetic Origin has been Reported in a Minority of Cases)

Acquired

Secondary Cardiomyopathies

Cardiofacial

Endocrine/Metabolic

Endomyocardial

Hematologic Disease

Infiltrative (Accumulation of Abnormal Substances in Extracellular Space Between Myocytes)

Infection/Inflammatory

Ischemic

Neoplasm

Neuromuscular/Neurologic

Nutritional

Rheumatologic

Storage (Accumulation of Abnormal Substances Intracellularly Within Myocytes)

Traumatic

Drug/Toxin

Other

Other

Increased Afterload

Increased Intrathoracic Pressure (with Impaired Right-Sided Venous Return)

Intracardiac Shunt (see Intracardiac and Extracardiac Shunt, [[Intracardiac and Extracardiac Shunt]])

Valvular Disease/Mechanical Disturbance

Other


Physiology

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy


Diagnosis

Electrocardiogram (EKG) (see Electrocardiogram, [[Electrocardiogram]])

Serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) or N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-pro-BNP) (see Serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide, [[Serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide]])

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Serum Troponin (see Serum Troponin, [[Serum Troponin]])

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Echocardiogram (see Echocardiogram, [[Echocardiogram]])

6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) (see 6-Minute Walk Test, [[6-Minute Walk Test]])

Indications

Cardiac Catheterization with Coronary Angiogram (see Cardiac Catheterization, [[Cardiac Catheterization]])

Swan-Ganz Catheterization (see Swan-Ganz Catheter, [[Swan-Ganz Catheter]])

Endomyocardial Biopsy

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (see Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test, [[Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test]])

Chest X-Ray (see Chest X-Ray, [[Chest X-Ray]])

Chest CT (see Chest Computed Tomography, [[Chest Computed Tomography]])


Clinical Manifestations

General Comments

ACCF/AHA Staging of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) (Circulation, 2013) [MEDLINE]

Comparison of Clinical Manifestations in Systolic vs Diastolic Congestive Heart Failure

Clinical Criteria for Advanced Heart Failure (European Society of Cardiology Criteria) (Circulation, 2012) [MEDLINE]

Cardiovascular Manifestations

Gastrointestinal/Hepatic Manifestations

Hematologic Manifestations

Pulmonary Manifestations

Cardiac Asthma (see Obstructive Lung Disease, [[Obstructive Lung Disease]])

Pleural Effusion (see Pleural Effusion-Transudate, [[Pleural Effusion-Transudate]] and Pleural Effusion-Exudate, [[Pleural Effusion-Exudate]])

Pulmonary Edema (see Pulmonary Edema, [[Pulmonary Edema]])

Pulmonary Hypertension (see Pulmonary Hypertension, [[Pulmonary Hypertension]])

Other

Other Manifestations


Prevention

Blood Pressure Management

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Use of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Screening to Prevent Congestive Heart Failure (see Brain Natriuretic Peptide, [[Brain Natriuretic Peptide]])

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]


Treatment (Stage C Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction)

Blood Pressure Management

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Diuretics

Agents

Administration

Aldosterone-Receptor Antagonists

Pharmacology

Agents

Beta Blockers (see β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists, [[β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists]])

Digoxin (Lanoxin) (see Digoxin, [[Digoxin]])

Pharmacology

Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors

Agents

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Hydralazine + Isosorbide Dinitrate (see Hydralazine, [[Hydralazine]] and Isosorbide, [[Isosorbide]])

Pharmacology

Indications

Ivabradine (XXX) (see Ivabradine, [[Ivabradine]])

Pharmacology

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)-Guided Therapy

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Management of Congestive Heart Failure-Associated Pleural Effusion (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])

Management of Anemia (see Anemia, [[Anemia]])

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Management of Systolic Congestive Heart Failure Associated with Predominantly Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) (see Central Sleep Apnea, [[Central Sleep Apnea]])

Modalities

Clinical Efficacy

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) (see Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy, [[Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy]])

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Cardiac Assist Device (see Cardiac Assist Devices, [[Cardiac Assist Devices]])

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Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) (see Ventricular Assist Device, [[Ventricular Assist Device]])

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Cardiac Transplant (see Cardiac Transplant, [[Cardiac Transplant]])

Indications

Absolute
Relative
nsufficient Indications

Contraindications (International Society for Heart Lung Transplantation, ISHLT, Criteria) (J Heart Lung Transplant, 2016) [MEDLINE]

Absolute
Relative

Treatment (Stage C Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction)

Blood Pressure Management

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]

Aldosterone-Receptor Antagonists

Agents

Recommendations (2017 Focused Update of 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure) (Circulation, 2017) [MEDLINE]


Prognosis

Prognostic Models in Congestive Heart Failure

Ambulatory

Hospitalized


References

General

Diagnosis

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) (see Brain Natriuretic Peptide, [[Brain Natriuretic Peptide]])

Treatment

Diuretics

Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Cardiac Transplant (see Cardiac Transplant, [[Cardiac Transplant]])