Multiple Sclerosis



Complete Blood Count (CBC) (see Complete Blood Count, [[Complete Blood Count]])

Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (see Magnetic Resonance Imaging, [[Magnetic Resonance Imaging]])

Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (see Magnetic Resonance Imaging, [[Magnetic Resonance Imaging]])

Lumbar Puncture (see Lumbar Puncture, [[Lumbar Puncture]])

Electromyogram (EMG)/Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) (see xxxxx, [[xxxx]])

Clinical Manifestations

General Comments

Clinical Features Which are Suggestive of Multiple Sclerosis

Clinical Features Which are Atypical of Multiple Sclerosis

Neurologic Manifestations

Brainstem Symptoms

Cortical Symptoms

Long Tract Symptoms

Spinal Cord Symptoms

Ophthalmologic Manifestations

Diplopia (see Diplopia, [[Diplopia]])

Optic Neuritis (see Optic Neuritis, [[Optic Neuritis]])

Pulmonary Manifestations

Respiratory Failure (see Respiratory Failure, [[Respiratory Failure]])

Clinical courses:
-Acute MS (Malignant Monophasic MS/ Marburg Disease): rare variant with fulminant disease, which may be rapidly fatal
-Relapsing MS:

-Chronic, progressive MS:
-Inactive MS:

-Weakness (35%):
-Sensory loss (37%):
-Parasthesias (24%):
-Visual symptoms due to optic neuritis (36%):
-Diplopia (15%):
-Ataxia (11%):
-Vertigo (6%):
-Lhermitte sign (3%):


Supportive Care

Mechanical Ventilation


Glatiramer Acetate (Copaxone) (see Glatiramer Acetate, [[Glatiramer Acetate]])

Interferon Beta-1a (Avonex, CinnoVex, Rebif) (see Interferon Beta-1a, [[Interferon Beta-1a]])

Interferon Beta-1b (Betaseron, Betaferon) (se Interferon Beta-1b, [[Interferon Beta-1b]])

Dimethyl Fumarate (Tecfidera) (see Dimethyl Fumarate, [[Dimethyl Fumarate]])

Fingolimod (Gilenya) (see Fingolimod, [[Fingolimod]])

Mitoxantrone (see Mitoxantrone, [[Mitoxantrone]])

Natalizumab (Tysabri) (see Natalizumab, [[Natalizumab]])

Teriflunomide (Aubagio) (see Teriflunomide, [[Teriflunomide]])

Corticosteroids (see Corticosteroids, [[Corticosteroids]])


Adverse Effects

Plasmapheresis (see Plasmapheresis, [[Plasmapheresis]]))

Phrenic Nerve Pacing